Motivation in second language learning is a complex phenomenon which can be defined in terms of two factors : learner’s communicative needs and their attitudes toward the second language community. If learners need to speak the second language in with range of social situations or to fulfill professional ambitions, they will perceive the communicative value of the second language and will there fore be motivated to acquire proficiency in it. It means that when learning language the role of motivation is very important since the students can not learn effectively with less motivation.
Motivation is the dynamic force that energized behavior. It is motivation that compel the child to act. The motivation is persistent since they keep the child acting until he finds the satisfaction for him (Smith, 1958 : 185).
Motivation has function in studying suck as to motivate as motor each activity, to know direction the goal that want to be reach, selecting of action determine the goal want to be reached by throwing of useless activity. From these its hereby are really important ways to know about motivation to student. (Sadirman, 1992, p. 130)
There has been a great deal of research on the role of attitudes and motivation in second language learning such a research that is hold in SMUN 1 Rantau academic year 2001-2002 by Suwazi with the title “ Correlation between motivation in learning English and their achievement in reading comprehension of the second grade students of SMUN 1 Rantau academic year 2001-2002”. It shows that motivation is some kind of internal drive date and encourages somebody to pursue a course of action. The result of the research shows that motivation and the achievement of language skills has tight relationship.
The other research about motivation also held by Marwiyah with the title “The correlation between motivation and vocabulary mastery at SMPN 17 Banjarmasin academic year 2004-2005”, this research result describe that between motivation and learning vocabulary or correlate want to another.
English is difficult lesson for student, certainly teacher, parents and environment have to cooperate to make student realize and want to study English as well. English is not easy lesson studied particularly student at junior high school, because they feel English is not important. Moreover, English at elementary school as addition of lesson in the curriculum. Beside on psychology of human, person will not follow some lesson if that person does not like, but if the person like of course will follow it. In teaching English, the teacher should coopered with media, family and environment approaching of student’s mentality, or invite student to share the problem in learning English. Besides, teacher technique to approach the student interest to English lesson through teaching by meaningful.
Since motivation is very important to make the students interest in learning English so that the teacher’s way in motivating the student can raise the students’ motivation. There are many ways of the teacher’s way in motivating the students suck as, using stimulation, discussion, question and answer activities, role plays, etc.
MTsN Sungai Tabuk is one of the junior high school that provide English. In learning English the student of MTsN Sungai Tabuk is also influence by the motivation. The researcher wants to held a research about the way of the teacher in motivating the students in learning English in this place since the student motivation are still less according to there English achievement report. Motivation of student to study English is less, because of the teacher, family, environment, and facilities which are not support English lesson as well. Beside that MTsN is an Islamic school where almost all the subject is about religion and the research wants to now the way of motivation in learning English is used by the English teacher. Based on the explanation above, the researcher wants to held a research with the title “A descriptive study of the teacher’s way in motivating the students in learning English at MTsN Sungai Tabuk academic year 2006-2007”
B. Identification and Formulation of the Problem
Motivation is very important to ensure of idea and the strength to someone whose have lower of power from inside. Instead of being encouraged build up some of thinking in mind to put concentration on the one topic. Most students have been influenced by something when their motivation is higher. According to pre-research that is done by the researcher student’s motivation at MTsN Sungai Tabuk Kabupaten Gambut Banjarmasin, still less because many influence from inside and outside, and the object of research is the influence of student’s motivation, one of the them is the way of the teacher in motivating the students in learning English.
This research is limited on student at MTsN Sungai Tabuk Banjarmasin, the central of problem formulation namely: “How is the teacher’s way in motivating the students in learning English at the second grade of MTsN Sungai Tabuk?”.
C. Research Objective
The research objective is to know the teacher’s way in motivating the students in learning English at MTsN Sungai Tabuk in academic year 2006-2007.
- The result of the research is expected to give contribution to the theory of the teacher’s way in motivating the students in learning English.
- For teacher, the result of this research is useful for the teacher, parent and environment how to motivate of students’ interest in studying English.
- For student, to at information of knowledge about how to motivate interest self in order to like English.
E. Working Theory
Mc.Donald’s opinion which taken by Wasty Soemanto in psikologi Pendidikan mentioned : (1986, p. 73)
Motivasi itu sebagai perubahan tenaga di dalam diri atau pribadi seseorang yang di tandai oleh dorongan efektif dan reaksi-reaksi dalam usaha mencapai tujuan. Definisi ini berisi 3 hal yaitu: motivasi dimulai dari suatu perubahan tenaga dalam diri seseorang, motivasi itu ditandai oleh dorongan efektif, motivasi ditandai oleh reaksi mencapai tujuan.
Motivation is very important to learn English as if for student at junior high school, because many of them do not like with English lesson. Certainly to measure of the influence of motivation particular, it will use variable that can support of data of the factors the influence from effective and insist of from students.
A. Motive and Motivation
Motive is a stimulus and encouragement to create behavior. Beside that, there are some definitions of motive and motivation given by some experts.
According to Woodworth (1982:17), “a motive is a set predisposes the individual of certain activities and for seeking certain goals”. While according to Fransen (1982: 18), “motive is internal conditions that arouse sustain direct and determine the intensity of learning effort, and also define the set satisfying or unsatisfying consequences of goal”. Tadjab (1994:101) states “Motive adalah daya penggerak dalam diri seseorang untuk melaksanakan aktivitas-aktivitas tertentu demi mencapai suatu tujuan tertentu”.
Hilgard in Pasaribu (1982:18) defines motivation as a general term characterizing the needs, aspirations, purposes of the organism as these initiate or regulated need satisfying or goal seeking behavior”. Donald (in Pasaribu 1982:19) gives the definition of motivation as an energy change with the person characterized by effective arousal and anticipatory goal reaction. And according to Martin (in Tadjib 1994:2), “Motivasi adalah suatu tenaga atau faktor yang terdapat dalam diri manusia yang menimbulkan, mengarahkan dan mengorganisasikan tingkah laku”.
From the definitions above, it can be concluded that motivation is a situation inside of human that causes someone does activities to reach a goal.
B. Types of Motivation
According to A. Tabrani (1992:72) there are four types of motivation, namely:
It is divided into two, they are: achievement competition and competition to other people. In achievement competition, the students must know the result that is achieved and then attempt to increase the result. Meanwhile in competition to other people, the students learn and compare the result achieved with other students.
b. Clear goal
Motivation encourages the students to achieve the goal. If the goal is clear and useful for the students, the students will attempt to achieve that goal.
c. Close to the goal
If the students see that the goal is far, they will be lazy to achieve and increase the goal. On the contrary, the students will be motivated to reach the goal if it is close to the students.
Interest influences a process of achievement to a motivation. If someone is not interested in something, she/he will not do any activity. But if someone has interest in learning she/he will learn enthusiastically. Someone’ interest to learn something can be seen from her/his desire to study.
The students who have interest in learning English will feel enjoy and give full attention when they follow the lesson. By knowing this, the teacher needs to attempt to raise students’ interest based on students’ behavior and achievement. The students have put interest to the lesson indicated by their behavior. For example: if they give full attention, enjoy and feel happy in the class, and they will achieve good achievement.
C. Ways of Creating Learning Motivation
According to Sardiman (1991:91) there are 10 ways to raise motivation in learning activity at school, namely:
a. Give score
Score is a symbol of value in learning activity. The scores are the strongest motivation for students.
Prize is a motivation arousal too, but it is not always like that. For a work, perhaps it is not interesting for someone who is not interested in it.
Competition is used as an instrument of motivation to encourage students’ learning. The individual or group competition can increase students’ achievement.
Ego-Involvement is meant to raise consciousness to students. By applying it,
the students will feel the importance of the task and receive it as challenge.
e. Give test
The students will be diligent to learn if they know that there will be a test. Therefore, giving a test is an instrument of motivation too.
f. To know the result
By knowing the result of task, if there is a progress, it can encourage students to study diligently.
If there is a student successful in finishing their task well in learning, the teacher needs to give praise. It is a kind of positive reinforcement and motivation.
Punishment is a negative reinforcement. But if it is given exactly and prudently the punishment will be a tool of motivation.
i. Desire to learn
It means that there is an element of consciousness to study.
A motivation rises because there is a need. An interest is a tool of principal communication. The process of learning will run well if there is an interest.
Similar to Sardiman, Djapri Basri (1989:12) proposes 12 ways to give students motivation to learn, they are:
a. Create learning situation that is enjoyable
The situation of learning must be enjoyable. The enjoyable situation can arouse students’ learning motivation.
b. Give prize
Giving prize to clever students can be motivation for students themselves and other students. It will encourage students to get good score.
c. Give praise
If there is a student who is successful in doing task well, it needs to be given praise. Because it is a positive reinforcement and can raise desire of student to study.
Competition is needed too, because it can raise achievement for individual or group competition.
In learning activity, cooperation can raise the students’ interest in learning group. The cooperation can give encouragement to learn and help the students who is less clever.
f. Inform students there will be a test
The student will be more diligent to study if they know that there will be a test. This is useful to increase their achievement.
The students’ behavior can appear in tasks that they have done if the students feel the importance of tasks and receive it as challenge. So, they will do that task diligently.
h. To arrange the students’ seat variously
The arrangement of students’ seat will create the harmony of learning situation. The teacher and students do not feel bored to use and occupy that class.
i. Use various method in teaching to fit the material
By using various methods in teaching to fit the material, the role of students in learning can be increased.
j. To give comment to students’ work
Beside giving score, comment about mistake that have been made by students in learning is also important to encourage students to learn, such as “very good work”, “next time will be better”, “actually you are able to do the task, but it is still less accurate.
k. To give comment to students’ work
For the students who make mistake, lazy and bad behavior in learning activity, the warning can be a tool to correct behavior. Example: The student who makes noise in the class.
l. Punishment as tool of education
Punishment can be used if the other way is not effective. It may be done if it can change the students’ behavior.
Based on the opinions above, it can be concluded that the teacher in raising learning motivation need to encourage students’ spirit and release burden. Therefore, the goal of teaching and learning activity can be achieved optimally.
A. Research Location
The research location is at MTsN Sungai Tabuk. It is Located on Jl. Kali Martapura, Desa Pembatangan RT. 2 Kecamatan Sungai Tabuk Banjar regency.
B. Research Design
The design of this study is descriptive qualitative where the researcher tries to describe about the teacher’s ways in motivating the students in learning English at MTsN Sungai Tabuk Banjar regency.
C. The Procedure of Data Collection
1. Data Source
The data are the teacher’s ways in motivating the students in learning English. The sources of data are the English teacher and the students of the second grade of MTsN Sungai Tabuk Banjar regency.
2. Research Instrument
Research instrument is questionnaire. There are two questionnaires. The first questionnaire is given to the teacher to know the teacher’s ways of motivating students in learning English. The second questionnaire is given to the students to know to what extent their motivation toward the English lesson as the impact of the teacher’s ways to arouse the students’ motivation.
3. Technique of Collecting Data
The data were collected through observation, questionnaire and interview. The techniques were applied to investigate the teacher’s ways in motivating the students in learning English.
Observation is used to get the data about how the teacher’s way in motivating the students in learning English.
Questionnaire is used to complete the data gained through observation. In the questionnaire, there are ten questions that should be answered by the teacher. There are two questionnaires. The first questionnaire is given to the teacher to know the teacher’s ways of motivating students in learning English. The second questionnaire is given to the students to know to what extent their motivation toward the English lesson as the impact of the teacher’s ways to arouse the students’ motivation.
This interview was used to complete the data gained through observation and questionnaires. The interview is addressed to the English teacher about his ways in motivating the students in learning English.
4. Research Population
The Subject of the study is the English teacher and all students in the second grade at MTsN Sungai Tabuk Banjar regency academic year 2006-2007. There are two classes of the second grade, II A consist of 24 students and II B consist 23 students, since the number of subject is less them 100 person so that all the subjects were taken as the sample, that is 47 students.
D. Technique of Data Analysis
All the collected data were analyzed qualitatively. The result of questionnaire and interview were analyzed into three steps, editing, interpreting and making conclusion. From the conclusion, it can be got about the description of the teacher’s way in motivating the students in learning English at the second grade of MTsN Sungai Tabuk Banjar regency academic year 2006-2007.
THE RESULT OF RESEARCH
The research is done to know the teacher’s ways in motivating the students in learning English. The subject of the research is the English teacher and all the students in the second grade of MTsN Sungai Tabuk Banjar regency academic year 2006-2007. Since the number of the subject is less than 100, all the subjects were taken as the samples (47 students). The design of this study is descriptive where the researcher tries to describe about the teacher’s ways in motivating the students in learning English. The techniques of collecting the data were observation, questionnaire, and interview.
All the collected data were analyzed qualitatively. The result of observation, questionnaire, and interview were analyzed into there steps; data editing, data interpreting, and conclusion drawing. From the conclusion, it can be got about the description of the teacher’s ways in motivating the students of the second grade of MTsN Sungai Tabuk Banjar regency academic year 2006 – 2007 in learning English.
B. The Result of Research
1. The Result of Observation
The result of observation shows that in teaching English the teacher motivate the students by giving score, giving advice, giving homework/exercises, giving praise, and giving punishment. The teacher gave score, advice, and exercises in the while activities, the teacher also gave praise toward the student when they can answer the teacher’s questions. The teacher gave home works to the students in the post-activities. Punishment is given to the students who come late to the class when English teaching and learning process is taking place.
2. The Result of the Questionnaire to the teacher
The result of the questionnaire given to the teacher can be seen in the following table:
Table of Questionnaire to the Teacher
No. Pertanyaan Selalu Kadang-kadang Jarang Tidak pernah
1 Apakah Bapak menerapkan metode mengajar yang bervariasi dalam menyajikan pelajaran?
2. Apakah Bapak memberikan informasi lebih dulu kepada siswa apabila akan dilaksanakan ulangan (test)?
3. Apakah Bapak memberikan score pada hasil pekerjaan siswa?
4. Apakah Bapak memberikan pujian (praise) ketika siswa dapat menjawab pertanyaan dengan benar?
5. Apakah Bapak memberikan hadiah (prize) kepada siswa yang mendapatkan score tertinggi dalam menjawab pertanyaan?
6. Apakah Bapak memberikan bimbingan (advice) ketika siswa mendapatkan masalah/kesulitan dalam belajar Bahasa Inggris?
7. Apakah Bapak menerapkan kegiatan kompetisi (competition)dalam belajar Bahasa Inggris?
8. Apakah Bapak menerapkan metode kerja kelompok (group work) dalam kegiatan pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris?
9. Apakah Bapak mengatur tempat (arrange student’s seat) duduk siswa yang bervariasi dalam proses belajar mengajar Bahasa Inggris?
10. Apakah Bapak memberikan punishment kepada siswa yang berprilaku kurang baik dalam proses pembelajaran (membuat keributan)?
The table shows that the English teacher always applies various methods in presenting the instructional materials, give scores to the students’ works, and give praise when the students can answer questions correctly. The teacher sometimes informs the students when he wants to give a test, give prize to the excellent students, applying group works in presenting the lesson, and give punishment to the bad behavior students in the teaching and learning process. The teacher is rarely arrange the students’ seat variously and never applies competition to the students.
4. The Result of Interview
The result of interview gives explanation that 85 % of the students at the second grade of MTsN Sungai Tabuk like English lesson. Their achievement in learning English is quite good with the score category around 6 – 8 (minimal standardization). If there is a student got lower achievement, it is because of some factors such as less attention when English teaching and learning process is taking place, lazy for asking questions, often left their books at home, the presence is less than standardization, have low intelligence, and uncomprehending about the lesson. The teacher said that motivation influence the students’ achievement in learning English. He stressed that the students should pray first before studying English and the teacher said that he always motivates his students, if the students got bad scores, he always gives remedial for them.
From the observation, questionnaire, and interview, it can be found the fact that the teacher’s ways in motivating the students in learning is quite good and make the students able to achieve a quite good score.
The result of observation, questionnaire and interview explain that the English teacher at MTsN Sungai Tabuk Banjar regency does some ways in motivating the students in learning English. The ways are: (1) giving score, (2) giving advice, (3) giving homework exercises, (4) giving praise, and (5) giving punishment
The teacher always gives praise if there is a student who can answer the questions from the teacher. It really helps the teacher to motivate them in learning English since the students feel valuable and get attention from the teacher. This is in line with what Sardiman (1991) says about types and ways to praise motivation in learning activity at school, one of them is the praise which is the kind of positive reinforcement and motivation.
The teacher also gives advice to the students. If the students make mistakes in answering the exercises or oral questions, the teacher gave the students advice how to get the correct answer.
From the questionnaire and interview, it can be got that the students’ motivation in learning English at the second grade of MTsN Sungai Tabuk is quite high and the student achievement is also quite high in learning English.
Although the students’ motivation is quite high, most of them learn at night before the English exam. The teacher should motivate the students to prepare perfectly the lesson before they have English examination. The teacher also can give prize if any of the students can get high score. Since motivation has some function as Sardiman (1986) explanation that the motivation function are ; push the human to act, determine direction of action, select the action, and pusher of effort and achieving the achievement.
In short, the ways the teacher motivate the students in learning English quite good and still in line with what the expert says about how to motivate the students ‘attention in learning English, so that the students’ achievement can be increased.
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
Based on the description in chapter IV, it can be concluded that the English teacher of MTsN Sungai Tabuk Banjar regency applied some ways in motivating the student in learning English. The ways that the teacher applied are giving score, giving advice, giving homework, giving praise; and giving punishment. Besides that, the English teacher always applied various methods in presenting the instructional materials, gave scores to the students’ works, and gave praise when the students could answer questions correctly. The teacher sometimes informed the students when he wanted to give a test, gave prize to the excellent students, applied group works in presenting the lesson, and gave punishment to the bad behavior students in the teaching and learning process. The teacher rarely arranged the students’ seat variously and never applied competition to the students.
Based on the conclusion above, some suggestions are addressed to the English teacher of MTsN Sungai Tabuk Banjar regency in particular and the English teachers of junior high school in general.
1. The teacher should keep motivating the students to learn English.
2. The teacher should keep using various methods in teaching to provide the material, such as using game since it will increase the role of the students.
3. The teacher can give prize if any of the students can get high score.
4. The teacher should create competition of feeling among the students to increase students’ motivation in learning English.
5. The teacher can vary the teaching material, in order that the students are more attracted toward the English lesson.
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