Selasa, 18 November 2008

RESEARCH DESIGN PROPOSAL

A Descriptive Study on Problems of the Second Grade Students at SMP Negeri 2 Kandangan in Using To be with Reference to Simple Present Tense


A. Background

English is one of the subjects taught for SMP students. The objective of the teaching English is to make the students able using the language for real life communication. It involves listening, speaking, reading, and writing. To master the four language skills the students should be taught the language components such as vocabulary, pronunciation, spelling, and structure. Vocabulary is one of the basic units of the language form; it consists of a list of words that the students master. Pronunciation is an effort of the students to know the way of saying the sound of words correctly; spelling is an effort to use the letters that make up a word correctly; and structure is an effort of the students to know how to build some words to be a correct sentence. Teaching structure involves the teaching of tenses. Basically, there are three main tenses that should be mastered by SMP students: simple present tense, past tense, and future tense.
SMP students must know well simple present as the best of the tense before learning other tenses. The function of simple present should be understood by the students in order that they could make the right sentence about simple present. This fact, simple present is little complex and need the deepest learning about it. Because it could help them to know about it. There are some terms of simple present tense (1) a one-word tense that require no auxiliaries, (2) the verb should be Verb I, (3) If the Verb1 goes with any subject she, he, it, the base form adds –s or –es, and (4) The verb to be is offering instead three simple present tense form: am, are, and is.( Farbman, 1985: 18-19)
Simple present form is as fundamental of tense then to carry on another tense. So, students should understand about simple present deeper. Therefore, the ability of students to understand simple present can help improve students in writing skill.
There are two types of sentence: verbal sentence and nominal sentence. Verbal sentence is the sentence that uses verb form as the predicate. Meanwhile, nominal sentence is a sentence that use be as the predicate.
Example:
1. He stays home (verbal sentence)
2. He is at home (nominal sentence).
In reality, some students confuse what sentence should be put be and what sentence should not use be. This condition becomes problems for the students because if the students use to be incorrectly, it will arise misunderstanding. Example: He is very like me. It should be He likes me very much.
Based on the description above, it can be stated that teaching structure, in this case, simple present tense using to be is very important. So, the writer is interested to know whether or not the students have problem in using to be in simple present tense. The research entitles A Descriptive Study on Problems of the Second Grade Students at SMP Negeri 2 Kandangan in Using To be with Reference to Simple Present Tense.

B. Identification and Formulation of the Problem
The structure consists of different kinds of sentence and form. And this research is restricted to the simple present tense. Simple present tense can be classified into two forms;
1. The present tense with verb be:
2. The present tense with verb other than be:

Simple present tense has three basic forms: affirmative, negative, and interrogative. The problem of the research is limited to the simple present tense using be in the affirmative form. The problem is formulated as follows:
What problems do the the Second Grade Students of SMP Negeri 2 Kandangan have in Using To be with Reference to Simple Present Tense.?

C. Research Objective
The objective of this research is to describe the problems of the second grade students of SMP Negeri 2 Kandangan in Using To be with Reference to Simple Present Tense.

D. Significance
The implication of this research is as a contribution for the improvement of practical instructional process in using simple present tense using to be.
Application
- For the teacher, it is as a feedback for the teaching structure with particular attantion to the use of to be in simple present tense..
- For the students, it is as a feedback regarding their problems in using to be in simple present tense.

E. Working Theory
a. Simple Present tense
Tense is the change of form of verb by the time. In this case, verb will determine of the action Erhans (1997: 33). Then the using of simple to express a habitual action by the categories:
1. To state of general truth
2. In commentaries on games and plays
3. In acclimations, announcements or demonstrations
4. To show a Future action that has been planned
5. Used for the passive form the simple present to show that the action is performed ON the subject and not by the subject. J. B. Alter, MA,. (1993: 36)
b. Verb To Be
It is as predicate to change verb in the sentence actually “be” consists of is, am, and are. Then they have function each point where are:
· Is: she, he, and it
· Am: I
· Are: They, you, and we. Erhans (1997: 7).



F. Review of Related Literature

1. The Nature of Sentence
A sentence is made up of one or more words which express a complete thought. It begins with a capital latter; and ends with a period, question mark, or acclimation point ). Meyer,Sebraneck (1985.11-12).

2. The Simple Present Tense
Tense is the change of form of verb by the time. In this case, verb will determine of the action Erhans (1997: 33). Then the using of simple to express a habitual action by the categories: to state of general truth, in commentaries on games and plays, in acclimations, announcements or demonstrations, to show a Future action that has been planned, used for the passive form the simple present to show that the action is performed on the subject and not by the subject. (J. B. Alter, MA,993: 36).

3. Simple Present in Sentence
Simple present is habitual action or permanent where is given in daily activity for the action of the speaker. Then aspect of action is clearly, which simple present tense is also used for express eternal truths; is has the least definite time aspect as it frequently includes present time, for example: Man is mortal, The sun rises in the east (Allen 1973: 75).


4. Part of Simple Present
The part of simple present is divided into: verb to be and verb 1.
1. Verb Be
It is as predicate to change verb in the sentence actually “be” consists of is, am, and are. Then they have function each point where are:
· Is: she, he, and it
· Am: I
· Are: They, you, and we. Erhans (1997: 7).
2. Verb I
In simple present, verb is always verb I. However, simple present has action of to know about using:
· Simple present is more impersonal
· Simple present can also sound more formal
· Simple present is sometimes used sound a bit clumsy.
Martinet,Thomson, 1995: 180)

This research focuses only on discussing the simple present tense using to be. So, the research will investigate the problems faced by the students in using to be for the simple present tense.




G. Method of Research
1. Research Location
The location of this research is SMP Negeri 2 Kandangani which is located on jl……….. Hulu Sungai Selatan regency. The school is chosen since the students are taught about the use of to be for simple present tense and the students have difficulty in understanding it. This information is gained when the writer did preliminary study at the school.

2. Research Design
This research will use descriptive method as it is intended to study about the problems that the students have in putting to be in a sentence, especially in simple present. The approach used in this research is quantitative approach.

3. The Procedure of data Collection
Data Sources
In this case, the research will use two sources of data to get the result of the research. They are primary data and secondary data.
· Primary data is taken from test.
· Secondary data is taken from interview with the English teachers
about students’ problems in putting to be in a sentence using simple present tense.



4. Sampling
a. Research Population
The population of this research is 114 students of at SMP Negeri 1 kandangan 2008/2009.. The number of students of each class is as follows:
No.
Class
Number of Students


Male
Female
1.



2.



3.



4



5



Total Number


b. Sampling Technique
The sampling technique used is proportional random sampling. It is said proportional because only certain number of students taken and it is said random as the students selected randomly by using lottery method. A piece of paper is numbered. Then the paper is rolled on and put into drum. The numbered a paper put into drum in line with the numbers of students. Then the students are asked to pick one of the rolled paper in the drum and
show the number that they got.

c. Sampling Unit
The sampling unit consists of …… students. This obtained through the technique used in taking the sample.

5. Technique of Collecting Data
The technique used in of collecting data is by giving students essay type xczctest. The students are asked to complete sentences using to be in simple present tense.

6. Technique of Data Analysis
- The data will be analyzed using the criteria:
For restricted response questions, score with point method ; use the answers direction. First write the direction for each question, and determine score for each question with weighting score are adjusted for each question.
- Total item consist of 8 item. Each item right answer to give 12.5. If the students right answer of 8 item they have 100.
- The formula is used :
S = N x R
S : Score of students
R : Right answer
N : Totality of questions
- To complite the students mean score, the following formula is used :
M = å X
N
M = Mean score
X = Total score earned
N = Number of students
The data will be interpreted by using the following category constructed based on the theoretical norm category which has been converted into the following table of interpretation.
Score
Qualification
77 – 100
Very good
65 – 77
Good
53 – 65
Fair
19 – 53
Poor
0 – 19
Very poor


References:

Patrick Sebraneck and Verna Meyer. 1985. Basic English Revised. Burlington, Wisconsin. America:

W. Stannard Allen. 1973. Living English Structure. Longman Group: London.

J. B. Alter, MA,. 1993. Essential English Usage and Grammar. Binarupa Aksara: Jakarta.

Farbman, 1985. Signals A Grammar and Guide for Writers. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston.

Hayden, Pilgrim, Haggard, 1956. Mastering American English. Prentice Hall. INC: The United State of America

Erhans, 1997. English Grammar. University of the State of New York Press: America.

A. J. Thomson and A. V. Martinet, 1995. A Practical English Grammar. Oxford University Press: England

Donald Ary, Lucy Cheser Jacobs and Asghar Razavieh 1985. Qualitative Research. CBS College Publishing: The United Stated of America.

Arikunto, Suharsimi. 1987. Metodologi Penelitian. PT. Angkasa: Jakarta.


Peterson, Patricia Wilcox. 1980. Changing Times, Changing Tenses. English Teaching Division and Cultural Affairs United States Information Agency. Washington, D.C.


A Descriptive Study on Problems of the Second Grade Students at SMP Negeri 2 Kandangan in Using To be with Reference to Simple Present Tense


A. Background

English is one of the subjects taught for SMP students. The objective of the teaching English is to make the students able using the language for real life communication. It involves listening, speaking, reading, and writing. To master the four language skills the students should be taught the language components such as vocabulary, pronunciation, spelling, and structure. Vocabulary is one of the basic units of the language form; it consists of a list of words that the students master. Pronunciation is an effort of the students to know the way of saying the sound of words correctly; spelling is an effort to use the letters that make up a word correctly; and structure is an effort of the students to know how to build some words to be a correct sentence. Teaching structure involves the teaching of tenses. Basically, there are three main tenses that should be mastered by SMP students: simple present tense, past tense, and future tense.
SMP students must know well simple present as the best of the tense before learning other tenses. The function of simple present should be understood by the students in order that they could make the right sentence about simple present. This fact, simple present is little complex and need the deepest learning about it. Because it could help them to know about it. There are some terms of simple present tense (1) a one-word tense that require no auxiliaries, (2) the verb should be Verb I, (3) If the Verb1 goes with any subject she, he, it, the base form adds –s or –es, and (4) The verb to be is offering instead three simple present tense form: am, are, and is.( Farbman, 1985: 18-19)
Simple present form is as fundamental of tense then to carry on another tense. So, students should understand about simple present deeper. Therefore, the ability of students to understand simple present can help improve students in writing skill.
There are two types of sentence: verbal sentence and nominal sentence. Verbal sentence is the sentence that uses verb form as the predicate. Meanwhile, nominal sentence is a sentence that use be as the predicate.
Example:
1. He stays home (verbal sentence)
2. He is at home (nominal sentence).
In reality, some students confuse what sentence should be put be and what sentence should not use be. This condition becomes problems for the students because if the students use to be incorrectly, it will arise misunderstanding. Example: He is very like me. It should be He likes me very much.
Based on the description above, it can be stated that teaching structure, in this case, simple present tense using to be is very important. So, the writer is interested to know whether or not the students have problem in using to be in simple present tense. The research entitles A Descriptive Study on Problems of the Second Grade Students at SMP Negeri 2 Kandangan in Using To be with Reference to Simple Present Tense.

B. Identification and Formulation of the Problem
The structure consists of different kinds of sentence and form. And this research is restricted to the simple present tense. Simple present tense can be classified into two forms;
1. The present tense with verb be:
2. The present tense with verb other than be:

Simple present tense has three basic forms: affirmative, negative, and interrogative. The problem of the research is limited to the simple present tense using be in the affirmative form. The problem is formulated as follows:
What problems do the the Second Grade Students of SMP Negeri 2 Kandangan have in Using To be with Reference to Simple Present Tense.?

C. Research Objective
The objective of this research is to describe the problems of the second grade students of SMP Negeri 2 Kandangan in Using To be with Reference to Simple Present Tense.

D. Significance
The implication of this research is as a contribution for the improvement of practical instructional process in using simple present tense using to be.
Application
- For the teacher, it is as a feedback for the teaching structure with particular attantion to the use of to be in simple present tense..
- For the students, it is as a feedback regarding their problems in using to be in simple present tense.

E. Working Theory
a. Simple Present tense
Tense is the change of form of verb by the time. In this case, verb will determine of the action Erhans (1997: 33). Then the using of simple to express a habitual action by the categories:
1. To state of general truth
2. In commentaries on games and plays
3. In acclimations, announcements or demonstrations
4. To show a Future action that has been planned
5. Used for the passive form the simple present to show that the action is performed ON the subject and not by the subject. J. B. Alter, MA,. (1993: 36)
b. Verb To Be
It is as predicate to change verb in the sentence actually “be” consists of is, am, and are. Then they have function each point where are:
· Is: she, he, and it
· Am: I
· Are: They, you, and we. Erhans (1997: 7).



F. Review of Related Literature

1. The Nature of Sentence
A sentence is made up of one or more words which express a complete thought. It begins with a capital latter; and ends with a period, question mark, or acclimation point ). Meyer,Sebraneck (1985.11-12).

2. The Simple Present Tense
Tense is the change of form of verb by the time. In this case, verb will determine of the action Erhans (1997: 33). Then the using of simple to express a habitual action by the categories: to state of general truth, in commentaries on games and plays, in acclimations, announcements or demonstrations, to show a Future action that has been planned, used for the passive form the simple present to show that the action is performed on the subject and not by the subject. (J. B. Alter, MA,993: 36).

3. Simple Present in Sentence
Simple present is habitual action or permanent where is given in daily activity for the action of the speaker. Then aspect of action is clearly, which simple present tense is also used for express eternal truths; is has the least definite time aspect as it frequently includes present time, for example: Man is mortal, The sun rises in the east (Allen 1973: 75).


4. Part of Simple Present
The part of simple present is divided into: verb to be and verb 1.
1. Verb Be
It is as predicate to change verb in the sentence actually “be” consists of is, am, and are. Then they have function each point where are:
· Is: she, he, and it
· Am: I
· Are: They, you, and we. Erhans (1997: 7).
2. Verb I
In simple present, verb is always verb I. However, simple present has action of to know about using:
· Simple present is more impersonal
· Simple present can also sound more formal
· Simple present is sometimes used sound a bit clumsy.
Martinet,Thomson, 1995: 180)

This research focuses only on discussing the simple present tense using to be. So, the research will investigate the problems faced by the students in using to be for the simple present tense.




G. Method of Research
1. Research Location
The location of this research is SMP Negeri 2 Kandangani which is located on jl……….. Hulu Sungai Selatan regency. The school is chosen since the students are taught about the use of to be for simple present tense and the students have difficulty in understanding it. This information is gained when the writer did preliminary study at the school.

2. Research Design
This research will use descriptive method as it is intended to study about the problems that the students have in putting to be in a sentence, especially in simple present. The approach used in this research is quantitative approach.

3. The Procedure of data Collection
Data Sources
In this case, the research will use two sources of data to get the result of the research. They are primary data and secondary data.
· Primary data is taken from test.
· Secondary data is taken from interview with the English teachers
about students’ problems in putting to be in a sentence using simple present tense.



4. Sampling
a. Research Population
The population of this research is 114 students of at SMP Negeri 1 kandangan 2008/2009.. The number of students of each class is as follows:
No.
Class
Number of Students


Male
Female
1.



2.



3.



4



5



Total Number


b. Sampling Technique
The sampling technique used is proportional random sampling. It is said proportional because only certain number of students taken and it is said random as the students selected randomly by using lottery method. A piece of paper is numbered. Then the paper is rolled on and put into drum. The numbered a paper put into drum in line with the numbers of students. Then the students are asked to pick one of the rolled paper in the drum and
show the number that they got.

c. Sampling Unit
The sampling unit consists of …… students. This obtained through the technique used in taking the sample.

5. Technique of Collecting Data
The technique used in of collecting data is by giving students essay type xczctest. The students are asked to complete sentences using to be in simple present tense.

6. Technique of Data Analysis
- The data will be analyzed using the criteria:
For restricted response questions, score with point method ; use the answers direction. First write the direction for each question, and determine score for each question with weighting score are adjusted for each question.
- Total item consist of 8 item. Each item right answer to give 12.5. If the students right answer of 8 item they have 100.
- The formula is used :
S = N x R
S : Score of students
R : Right answer
N : Totality of questions
- To complite the students mean score, the following formula is used :
M = å X
N
M = Mean score
X = Total score earned
N = Number of students
The data will be interpreted by using the following category constructed based on the theoretical norm category which has been converted into the following table of interpretation.
Score
Qualification
77 – 100
Very good
65 – 77
Good
53 – 65
Fair
19 – 53
Poor
0 – 19
Very poor


References:

Patrick Sebraneck and Verna Meyer. 1985. Basic English Revised. Burlington, Wisconsin. America:

W. Stannard Allen. 1973. Living English Structure. Longman Group: London.

J. B. Alter, MA,. 1993. Essential English Usage and Grammar. Binarupa Aksara: Jakarta.

Farbman, 1985. Signals A Grammar and Guide for Writers. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston.

Hayden, Pilgrim, Haggard, 1956. Mastering American English. Prentice Hall. INC: The United State of America

Erhans, 1997. English Grammar. University of the State of New York Press: America.

A. J. Thomson and A. V. Martinet, 1995. A Practical English Grammar. Oxford University Press: England

Donald Ary, Lucy Cheser Jacobs and Asghar Razavieh 1985. Qualitative Research. CBS College Publishing: The United Stated of America.

Arikunto, Suharsimi. 1987. Metodologi Penelitian. PT. Angkasa: Jakarta.


Peterson, Patricia Wilcox. 1980. Changing Times, Changing Tenses. English Teaching Division and Cultural Affairs United States Information Agency. Washington, D.C.













A Descriptive Study on Problems of the Second Grade Students at SMP Negeri 2 Kandangan in Using To be with Reference to Simple Present Tense


A. Background

English is one of the subjects taught for SMP students. The objective of the teaching English is to make the students able using the language for real life communication. It involves listening, speaking, reading, and writing. To master the four language skills the students should be taught the language components such as vocabulary, pronunciation, spelling, and structure. Vocabulary is one of the basic units of the language form; it consists of a list of words that the students master. Pronunciation is an effort of the students to know the way of saying the sound of words correctly; spelling is an effort to use the letters that make up a word correctly; and structure is an effort of the students to know how to build some words to be a correct sentence. Teaching structure involves the teaching of tenses. Basically, there are three main tenses that should be mastered by SMP students: simple present tense, past tense, and future tense.
SMP students must know well simple present as the best of the tense before learning other tenses. The function of simple present should be understood by the students in order that they could make the right sentence about simple present. This fact, simple present is little complex and need the deepest learning about it. Because it could help them to know about it. There are some terms of simple present tense (1) a one-word tense that require no auxiliaries, (2) the verb should be Verb I, (3) If the Verb1 goes with any subject she, he, it, the base form adds –s or –es, and (4) The verb to be is offering instead three simple present tense form: am, are, and is.( Farbman, 1985: 18-19)
Simple present form is as fundamental of tense then to carry on another tense. So, students should understand about simple present deeper. Therefore, the ability of students to understand simple present can help improve students in writing skill.
There are two types of sentence: verbal sentence and nominal sentence. Verbal sentence is the sentence that uses verb form as the predicate. Meanwhile, nominal sentence is a sentence that use be as the predicate.
Example:
1. He stays home (verbal sentence)
2. He is at home (nominal sentence).
In reality, some students confuse what sentence should be put be and what sentence should not use be. This condition becomes problems for the students because if the students use to be incorrectly, it will arise misunderstanding. Example: He is very like me. It should be He likes me very much.
Based on the description above, it can be stated that teaching structure, in this case, simple present tense using to be is very important. So, the writer is interested to know whether or not the students have problem in using to be in simple present tense. The research entitles A Descriptive Study on Problems of the Second Grade Students at SMP Negeri 2 Kandangan in Using To be with Reference to Simple Present Tense.

B. Identification and Formulation of the Problem
The structure consists of different kinds of sentence and form. And this research is restricted to the simple present tense. Simple present tense can be classified into two forms;
1. The present tense with verb be:
2. The present tense with verb other than be:

Simple present tense has three basic forms: affirmative, negative, and interrogative. The problem of the research is limited to the simple present tense using be in the affirmative form. The problem is formulated as follows:
What problems do the the Second Grade Students of SMP Negeri 2 Kandangan have in Using To be with Reference to Simple Present Tense.?

C. Research Objective
The objective of this research is to describe the problems of the second grade students of SMP Negeri 2 Kandangan in Using To be with Reference to Simple Present Tense.

D. Significance
The implication of this research is as a contribution for the improvement of practical instructional process in using simple present tense using to be.
Application
- For the teacher, it is as a feedback for the teaching structure with particular attantion to the use of to be in simple present tense..
- For the students, it is as a feedback regarding their problems in using to be in simple present tense.

E. Working Theory
a. Simple Present tense
Tense is the change of form of verb by the time. In this case, verb will determine of the action Erhans (1997: 33). Then the using of simple to express a habitual action by the categories:
1. To state of general truth
2. In commentaries on games and plays
3. In acclimations, announcements or demonstrations
4. To show a Future action that has been planned
5. Used for the passive form the simple present to show that the action is performed ON the subject and not by the subject. J. B. Alter, MA,. (1993: 36)
b. Verb To Be
It is as predicate to change verb in the sentence actually “be” consists of is, am, and are. Then they have function each point where are:
· Is: she, he, and it
· Am: I
· Are: They, you, and we. Erhans (1997: 7).



F. Review of Related Literature

1. The Nature of Sentence
A sentence is made up of one or more words which express a complete thought. It begins with a capital latter; and ends with a period, question mark, or acclimation point ). Meyer,Sebraneck (1985.11-12).

2. The Simple Present Tense
Tense is the change of form of verb by the time. In this case, verb will determine of the action Erhans (1997: 33). Then the using of simple to express a habitual action by the categories: to state of general truth, in commentaries on games and plays, in acclimations, announcements or demonstrations, to show a Future action that has been planned, used for the passive form the simple present to show that the action is performed on the subject and not by the subject. (J. B. Alter, MA,993: 36).

3. Simple Present in Sentence
Simple present is habitual action or permanent where is given in daily activity for the action of the speaker. Then aspect of action is clearly, which simple present tense is also used for express eternal truths; is has the least definite time aspect as it frequently includes present time, for example: Man is mortal, The sun rises in the east (Allen 1973: 75).


4. Part of Simple Present
The part of simple present is divided into: verb to be and verb 1.
1. Verb Be
It is as predicate to change verb in the sentence actually “be” consists of is, am, and are. Then they have function each point where are:
· Is: she, he, and it
· Am: I
· Are: They, you, and we. Erhans (1997: 7).
2. Verb I
In simple present, verb is always verb I. However, simple present has action of to know about using:
· Simple present is more impersonal
· Simple present can also sound more formal
· Simple present is sometimes used sound a bit clumsy.
Martinet,Thomson, 1995: 180)

This research focuses only on discussing the simple present tense using to be. So, the research will investigate the problems faced by the students in using to be for the simple present tense.




G. Method of Research
1. Research Location
The location of this research is SMP Negeri 2 Kandangani which is located on jl……….. Hulu Sungai Selatan regency. The school is chosen since the students are taught about the use of to be for simple present tense and the students have difficulty in understanding it. This information is gained when the writer did preliminary study at the school.

2. Research Design
This research will use descriptive method as it is intended to study about the problems that the students have in putting to be in a sentence, especially in simple present. The approach used in this research is quantitative approach.

3. The Procedure of data Collection
Data Sources
In this case, the research will use two sources of data to get the result of the research. They are primary data and secondary data.
· Primary data is taken from test.
· Secondary data is taken from interview with the English teachers
about students’ problems in putting to be in a sentence using simple present tense.



4. Sampling
a. Research Population
The population of this research is 114 students of at SMP Negeri 1 kandangan 2008/2009.. The number of students of each class is as follows:
No.
Class
Number of Students


Male
Female
1.



2.



3.



4



5



Total Number


b. Sampling Technique
The sampling technique used is proportional random sampling. It is said proportional because only certain number of students taken and it is said random as the students selected randomly by using lottery method. A piece of paper is numbered. Then the paper is rolled on and put into drum. The numbered a paper put into drum in line with the numbers of students. Then the students are asked to pick one of the rolled paper in the drum and
show the number that they got.

c. Sampling Unit
The sampling unit consists of …… students. This obtained through the technique used in taking the sample.

5. Technique of Collecting Data
The technique used in of collecting data is by giving students essay type xczctest. The students are asked to complete sentences using to be in simple present tense.

6. Technique of Data Analysis
- The data will be analyzed using the criteria:
For restricted response questions, score with point method ; use the answers direction. First write the direction for each question, and determine score for each question with weighting score are adjusted for each question.
- Total item consist of 8 item. Each item right answer to give 12.5. If the students right answer of 8 item they have 100.
- The formula is used :
S = N x R
S : Score of students
R : Right answer
N : Totality of questions
- To complite the students mean score, the following formula is used :
M = å X
N
M = Mean score
X = Total score earned
N = Number of students
The data will be interpreted by using the following category constructed based on the theoretical norm category which has been converted into the following table of interpretation.
Score
Qualification
77 – 100
Very good
65 – 77
Good
53 – 65
Fair
19 – 53
Poor
0 – 19
Very poor


References:

Patrick Sebraneck and Verna Meyer. 1985. Basic English Revised. Burlington, Wisconsin. America:

W. Stannard Allen. 1973. Living English Structure. Longman Group: London.

J. B. Alter, MA,. 1993. Essential English Usage and Grammar. Binarupa Aksara: Jakarta.

Farbman, 1985. Signals A Grammar and Guide for Writers. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston.

Hayden, Pilgrim, Haggard, 1956. Mastering American English. Prentice Hall. INC: The United State of America

Erhans, 1997. English Grammar. University of the State of New York Press: America.

A. J. Thomson and A. V. Martinet, 1995. A Practical English Grammar. Oxford University Press: England

Donald Ary, Lucy Cheser Jacobs and Asghar Razavieh 1985. Qualitative Research. CBS College Publishing: The United Stated of America.

Arikunto, Suharsimi. 1987. Metodologi Penelitian. PT. Angkasa: Jakarta.


Peterson, Patricia Wilcox. 1980. Changing Times, Changing Tenses. English Teaching Division and Cultural Affairs United States Information Agency. Washington, D.C.

Tidak ada komentar:

Poskan Komentar

Mengenai Saya

Foto saya
Banjarbaru, Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia