Sabtu, 29 November 2008

SOME THEORIES ABOUT ENGLISH TEACHING MEDIA

A. Instructional Media
According to Van Els et al. (1984), media are all aids which may be used by teachers and learners to attain certain educational objectives. Furthermore, media can be specified in different ways. Edmenger ( 1979:24) in Van Els (1984) lists a number of points of view from which media can be considered: (1) the nature of the information conveyed by the media (i.e. linguistic and non linguistic information); (2) the channel of the information (auditory, visual, or audiovisual media); (3) the phases in the process of teaching and testing whether they are used for the presentation, repetition, and exploitation of learning material, or for testing; (4) the didactic function whether they are used to motivate learners, to convey information, or to stimulate free language use; (5) the degree of accessibility and adaptability (Mindt 1978, Macht and Sclossbauer 1978, Heaton 1979:39) in Van Els (1984);
(6) the possibilities for supporting ,supplementing, or replacing the teacher (Ahrens 1980) in Van Els (1984) ; (7) the use of media by individual or in groups.
Hamijoyo as quoted in Latuheru (1988) states that instructional media are the media whose function is integrated in the instructional objectives stated in the syllabus. Heinich (1993) also states that media are considered as instructional media when they carry messages with an instructional purpose, i.e., to facilitate communication. Moreover, Suleiman (1988) asserts that instructional media are the media that bring information or messages from the information resources/senders (teachers) to the receivers (students). He further states that the instructional media are intended to increase the learning outcome. In line with the ideas of stated previously, Richards (in Kasbolah, 1993:10) defines the instructional media as the media which are used within the instructional design and are determined by the requirements of the objective content and instructional method.
Paiman (1992) in Sugiharto (1994) states that instructional media can be used in the teaching of English, because they can activate and stimulate the students’ interest in studying English, lessen verbalism, and make the acquisition of the result of learning permanent. However, it must be remembered that in the use of instructional media, it is important for the teachers to have certain ability and skill to use media effectively and efficiently.

B. Functions and Roles of Instructional Media
Callahan (1982:360) stated that the effectiveness of involving media in teaching middle school students is as follows:
Audio-visual materials and devices can add interest and variety to your classes. Skillful use of audio visual material can be great motivator and can add life and color to the classroom. Furthermore, the use of audio-visual aids puts your points across. Well-used audio-visual aids add to the impact of the presentation. The cliche that one picture is worth a thousand words is true. The more important truth is that the skillfully used audio-visual aids reinforce the presentation so that you have both the picture and the thousand words work for you.

Gutchow (1981) in Sugiharto (1994) states that instructional media are instrument of motivation and they can also stimulate interest in language program. Furthermore, he states that with the help of media, the use of the students’ mother tongue can be avoided.
The main function of the instructional media usage is to support the instructional interaction between the teacher and the student (Latuheru, 1988:14). It means that within teaching and learning process, there should be two-way communication, between the teacher and the students and among the students. This communication is to deliver the instructional materials.
Davies (1980:193) divides the function of media into two kinds. They are aids to instruction and aids to learning. The first function is that media serve to help teachers and instructors manage instruction more efficiently. Media assist teachers to communicate more effectively and take over the operating role of instruction form teacher and instructors. The second function is that media serve to help students learn more efficiently. Media promote understanding, assist in the transfer of training, and assist in assessment. Media can be used in assessing mastery performance.
Brown (1983) states that the function of media are saving the time, stimulating interest, encouraging students’ participation, providing a review, helping students learn to communicate ideas visually, providing medium for individual or group reports, and making a classroom dynamic, relevant, and attractive. Media can save the time mean that most media presentation requires a short time to transmit their messages. Media can make class situation more alive since the media can interest the students and attract students’ attention (Finocchiaro, 1993 in Farida, 1997). In case of media can provide a review for the learners is supported by Dale (1969) states that instructional media not only give concrete experiences needed by the receivers (the students) but also help the students to integrate the previous experiences. Media are able to make the students memorize some prior experiences and events more easily. Also Richard (1990) in Farida (1997) states that instructional media function to assist learners in learning and remembering the important concepts of a lesson.
Encyclopedia of Educational Media Communications and Technologies (1978) states that we can get greater learning results when media are integrated into the learning process; that equal amounts of learning are often accomplished in less time by using educational media; and that media generally facilitate learning and are preferred by the students when compared with traditional instruction. Media can increase interest, comprehension and retention; it is based on the hypothesis that the more abstract the context of a message, the more difficult it is to comprehend. Thus, it can be said that media have the ability to add concreteness to any learning situation.
Instructional media can enhance and promote learning and support a teacher’s instruction. Media can also be used effectively in formal education situation when the teacher is not available or is working with other students. It means that media replace the teacher when he must leave the class for certain purpose, because the class has to go on. The students can study through the media. Besides, media help the teacher become a creative manager of the learning experiences (Heinich, 1993).
Dale (1969) stated that there are several things instructional media can do in the teaching process such as heighten motivation for learning, provide freshness and variety, appeal to students of varied abilities, encourage active participation, give needed reinforcement, assure order and continuity of thought, and widen the range of students’ experience.
Furthermore Dale (1969:108) state that an experience of doing calls for a good deal of concrete, direct, immediate action in which people make full use of our senses and often of their muscles as well. When people merely observe something, however, the experience requires less physical or concrete action than an experience of doing. And in people symbolic experiences, virtually all the manifest physical action has been removed; people deal more with the experience through their thought or their general ideas.
According to Richards (in Sugiharto, 1994), instructional media have several roles. Three of them are attention role, communicative role, and retention role. Attention role of media is to attract the students’ attention, to heighten the students’ curiosity, and to convey the information. Media can make the information more attractive. Picture and real objects are easily processed to catch and hold the young learner’s attention.
In its communicative role, media can function to enhance comprehension and to assist the learner in understanding the message. Instructional media can increase the communicative power of the instruction by explaining the message contained in the instruction. In other words, the communication role of media is a way of clarifying the message by making explicit certain concepts of the lesson.
The retention role of Instructional media concerns with retention of information presented in the instruction. Retention media, although seen and recorded by the learner during the lesson, have their effect later on when the time comes to remember the information. Many people believe that images are better retained in memory than words. It should be noted that memory processes are complex, and images are not necessarily the main determinant of retention. Instructional media are used to assist learner in learning and in remembering the important concepts of a lesson.
Media are generally said to have two main functions: they serve to make Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) livelier, and they are an integral part of the teaching/learning process (Van Els et al. 1984).
With respect to the first function, visual and audiovisual media mostly provide additional information. This includes, for instance, furnishing the classroom with wall charts, notice boards, maps, posters, maps, pictures, etc., or providing visual or audiovisual support for part of the teaching programme, for instance, the cultural background part. With respect to the second function mentioned above it should be observed that the actual use of media largely depends on the particular phase in the cycle of teaching/learning activities in which they are used.
In the presentation phase, visual media (flashcards and filmstrips) provide the visual support for the acoustic memory (Schiffler 1973:22 as in Van Els 1984:291) and aid the semantization of the language material which has been presented auditorily. In the repetition phase, visual media may be used to aid the internalization of rules and to correct pronunciation. In situational exercises they may serve to initiate and guide practice. The exploitation phase media are especially important because they can provide the stimuli for free conversation.
Concerning the important of using visual media in teaching and learning activities in the classroom, the researcher is really interested in implementing the second function of media. It is very close related to the media that he uses in the classroom that is visual media. The role of media in an instructional situation according to Heinich (1993), is for supplemental of the “live” instruction in the classroom. This is in line with the statement of Finocchiaro (1973) stating that media can make a class situation more alive since the media can interest students and attract students’ attention.



C. Kinds of Instructional Media
In general, there are three kinds of instructional media. They are audio, visual, and audio visual media. Audio media are media that can be listened to, while visual media are media that can be seen. The instructional media that involve the senses of sight and hearing are named as audio visual media (Kasbolah, 1993:57).
Finocchiaro (1973:155-185) mentions some examples of the media for each type. The visual media may include blackboard, textbook, real object, picture file, chart, pocket chart, flash card, word card, number card, flannel or felt board, magnetic board, opaque projector, overhead projector and transparency, kodachrome slide, filmstrip, and miscellaneous materials. Finocchiaro and Bonomo (1973:164) also suggest that every classroom should contain a file of pictures which can be used to give interesting, meaningful practice of a foreign language. The file should contain three kinds of pictures: (1) pictures of individual person and of individual object, (2) pictures of situation in which persons are doing something with object and in which the relationship of subjects or people can be seen, and (3) a series of pictures on one chart. The audio aids include record player, tape recorder, and language laboratory. The last, audio visual media cover film, television, and programmed instruction.

D. Visual Instructional Media and Their Effectiveness
Based on Oxford Learner’s Dictionary (1989:1424), visual media are “pictures, films, video, maps, etc. used as teaching aids”. They can be also defined as things that can be seen which are used as teaching and learning visuals.
Media play a very important role in the teaching and learning process, including foreign language learning. Most people, however, think that visual media are only playful technique and a waste of time. Therefore, they decide not to use the media (Suleiman, 1985). It is not wise to judge that visual media are only playful technique and time consuming because the effectiveness of visual media for language teaching has been acknowledge. As mentioned by Huebener (in Murdibjono, 1982:69) that …
In learning anything, including foreign language learning, media play a very important role because they increase the effectiveness of learning by helping the pupil to assimilate ideas in a more meaningful and interesting manner. Through the appeal to eye and ear they provide for a systematic improvement of knowledge and skills, as well as a favorable influence on attitudes and appreciation.

J. P. Guilford (in Ornstein, 1977:143) also indicates that visual media are needed in order to give a clear concept of information given and to avoid overlapping in decoding information because information can be defined as anything that is discriminated by an individual. Information may be gained directly through sensing or experiencing environmental objects and events. By representing visual media in class, the students will experience directly toward what the teacher wants.
According to Wright (1976:1), the use of visual media to help create situations which interest the students and in which verbal communication would be a natural element to a native speaker (intrinsic language) and not an act artificially prefabricated and imposed by the teacher.
He also stated that visual media could be effectively used for teaching listening, speaking, writing, reading, grammar, culture, and for testing as well.
Finocchiaro (1973) stated that visual media could be used as meaningful practice in structure and vocabulary of English. While Heinich and Molenda (1993) mentioned that the primary function of visual media is to serve as more concrete referent to meaning than to spoken or written words. Furthermore, they stated that visual media could also motivate learners by increasing their interest in a text or presentation. They attract attention, sustain attention, and generate emotion. Reinteraction is another function of visual. They can underscore the information in printed material or verbal narration by presenting it in a different form. Visual can simplify information that is difficult to understand and remember.
Ornstein (1977:143) indicates that visual media are needed in order to give a clear concept of information given and to avoid overlapping in decoding information because information can be defined as anything that is discriminated by an individual. Information may be gained directly through sensing or experiencing environmental objects and events. By representing visual media in class, the students will experience directly toward what the teacher wants.
A teacher of young learners has to use some visual media in their teaching activities. There are some visual media in general, and they are (1) still pictures, (2) realia, (3) drawing or teacher-made drawing, and (4) charts, posters, cartoons, and real objects (Kasbolah, 1995:71). The other media that are very useful for teaching young learners are flash cards and puppets.

a. Still Pictures
Still pictures are photographic (or photographic like) representations of people, places, and things. The still pictures most commonly used in instruction are photographs, postcards, illustrations from books, periodicals, catalogs, and so on. (Heinich, Molenda, and Russel, 1993). They also stated the advantages of using still pictures. For example, nonprojected still pictures can translate abstract ideas into more realistic format. They allow instruction to move down from the level of verbal symbols in Dale’s cone of experience to a more concrete level. Still pictures are easy to use because they do not require any equipment. They are relatively inexpensive. Many can be obtained at little or no cost. Still pictures can be used in many ways at all level of instruction and in all disciplines.
Furthermore, pictures play an important role in facilitating the teaching and learning process. Wright (1989:29) states that pictures are very important to help students to retell experience or understand something since they can represent place, objects, people, etc.
Pictures and illustrations are not a substitute for books and other learning activities. Their function is a helping or supplementary one. Pictorial materials have proved their value in ways already enumerated, the chief four of which are (1) motivating interest and learning, (2) providing source material for study and investigation, (3) providing artistic and esthetic development, and (4) providing cues which led to creative effort (Kinder, 1950:102).
Yuswotomo (1991:14) states that there are two kinds of pictures that can be used as teaching media. They are the original pictures and the pictures of illustration. The original pictures show the concrete shapes of the objects, or person related to the topic being discussed. The pictures of illustration, on the other hand, are made in order to display a situation or an object needed for the teaching activities such as the illustration of a conversation between mother and father in a dining room.
According to Wright (1989:2) pictures contribute to interest and motivation, a sense of context of the language, and a specific reference point or stimulus. He also stated that picture can be useful on emphasizing the teaching of writing and speaking, listening and reading integratedly.
The most benefit of a picture can make is to contribute to the student’s understanding of a more general context which may be made up of pictures, the teacher’s actions, the student’s actions, sound effects and words. This overall context of new language will have meaning to the students (Wright, 1994:128).
When selecting a picture, some essentials should be kept in mind: grammatical structures which can be practiced with it, items of vocabulary which can be taught with it, size, clarity, appeal to the eye, and entertainment value. It is useful and time consuming to mark each picture on the reverse side and indicate the language item it can be used for (Ernestova, 1988).
Brown (1983:184) stated some research results on still pictures. The results of the research show that (1) pictures stimulates students’ interest, (2) well-selected and adapted pictures help the students understanding and remembering the content of presented materials, (3) simplified pictures or still drawing which contain simple line drawings are more effective as information transmitters than shaded drawings or real rile photographs, (4) the colorful pictures will reduce the teaching value of the pictures if the instructional materials do not involve color, (5) a sequence of still picture is more effective than a single picture whenever we want to teach concept involving motion, and (6) the use of arrows or other marks as symbolic cueing can clarify the message to be communicated. Still pictures can be in the forms of flats, opaque pictures, filmstrips, or slides.
Dale (1963:243) stated that still pictures have unique advantages of their own. They can bring us close to the very point of visual context with reality for teaching purposes or change the size of an object too small or too large to be visually understood in its actual dimensions.
b. Realia

Heinich (in Kasbolah, 1995:71) defines realia as the visual instructional aids which are most closely associated with a direct purposeful learning experience. It is very easy to buy mode of object or thing made from plastics. The examples of realia are plastic fruit, kitchen utensils, dolls, cars, furniture, etc.
Kasbolah et al. (1995:71) state that realia which are brought in EFL classroom would stimulate learning of the young students, who like to see, to touch, and to hold things. Finocchiaro (1973:163) mention that students understand and retain meaning of a word when they have shown or have touched some objects associated with it. For that reason, the teacher of language in elementary school should make a collection of every day objects, especially for children, toys would be better.

c. Drawings or Teacher Made Drawing
Brown (1983:83) stated that the most important aspect on drawings is the communicative aspect. Drawings will be in the form of sketches, graphics, cartoons, or other visual presentation. The practice of drawing will develop skill of drawing itself.
According to him again (1983:90), there are two important steps on drawing. They are starting figure drawing with simple stick figure and adding detail to character. Sketches of real thing can establish environments or activities.

d. Charts, Posters, and Cartoons
An important purpose of many charts according to Brown (1983:112) is to present visually ideas or concepts which are likely to be difficult to understand if they are presented in oral or written form. Chart also can highlight important points of presentations. An effective chart tends to be composed of mixture of several different types of graphics, pictures, drawings, graphs, diagrams, and verbal materials (Brown 1983:112).
Brown et al. (1983:112) said “Pictures in the charts should be big enough so the students sitting in the back of the class can still see them well.” The size of the picture used in the charts depends on the kinds of pictures; situation pictures must be bigger than pictures of one object.
A chart should have a clear, well-defined instructional purpose (Heinich, 1993). In general (especially for younger students), it should express only one major concept or configuration of concepts. The teacher should be sure that his charts contain the minimum of visual and verbal information needed for understanding. So, the most important thing that should be kept in mind is “keep it simple”. It is also stated by Callahan (1982) that “clarity, simplicity, and dramatics are essential consideration”.
According to Finocchiaro (1964:89) in Farida (1997), the series of pictures on a chart will be found extremely helpful in giving extensive practice in numerous structures with a limited known vocabulary. In giving the sentence pattern, a teacher should make sure all words (for pictures) could fit logically into it.
The other kind of visual aids is a poster. Poster is designed to convey information vividly, attractively and economically. According to Brown (1983:118), the more directly the design suggests the message to be conveyed, the more effective posters are. Brown et al (1983:118) also mentions the characteristics of the best poster. The best poster has just one purpose. The treatment is forceful and clear. It is full of color and the size is large enough to be easily seen and understood in brief glance.
Cartoons are one of the major forms of graphic communication. Brown says that cartoons have power to capture attention and influence attitude and behavior. The message of the cartoon is usually clearly communicated. He also mentions the characteristics of cartoon. The first one is that it has minimum details and the second one is that it contains of familiar symbols or characters, and stereotypes that are quickly recognized and understood.

e. Real Object
Students understand and retain the meaning of a word better when they have been shown or have touched some objects associated with it. For this reason, teachers are suggested to make a collection of everyday objects, including such things as newspaper, tickets, posters, bottles, fruit, vegetables, cans, dishes, etc (Finocchiaro, 1973:96). For example, the teacher uses apples, bananas, and peaches. He uses them as tools to employ a concept. The teacher emphasizes the meaning of the objects by showing and demonstrating them into some relevant activities such as eating them, put them into refrigerator. Further the students can also group the items under fruit or food. By doing so, they can recode information into a classification scheme to enable them to learn and to make sense of stimuli which they experience (Ornstein, 1977).
Gerlach and Elly (1980) mentions some characteristics about real objects and models. They recite that real objects have the potential of increasing realism, real objects are preferred when authencity is desired, real objects and models help reduce the gap between instruction and later performance, and real objects and models can frequently be handled, manipulated, assembled, and observed very closely. If learning is increased through the use of several senses, then real objects will facilitate learning.
Heinich, Molenda, and Russel (1993) state that models and real objects are the recommended media when realism is essential for learning-with concepts that involve three dimensions; tasks that require identification by size, shape, or color; and hands-on or laboratory practice. Their suggestions about the ways to use real objects and models are shown below:
1. Familiarize yourself with the object or model before using it in classroom instructions
2. Practice your presentation. If your object or model is working one, be sure you know how it works and what might go wrong
3. Be sure your audience does not get the wrong impression of the size, shape, or color of the real object if the model differs from it in these respects
4. Whenever feasible, encourage your students to handle and manipulate the objects and model under study
5. Store objects out of sight when they are not being used for instruction. Left standing around, they are likely to take students’ attention away from other classroom activities.
Finocchiaro (1973:163) stated that the using and collecting of real objects depend upon the age group, the learner level and the presentation method which is employed. Furthermore, he mentioned that young learner might enjoy playing at housekeeping or moving about the rooms to hide or to find things.

f. Flash Cards
Flash cards can be in the form of photograph, drawings, or pictures cut from magazines and newspapers. According to Suleiman (1985), to be effective, pictures or drawings that are used in flash cards must fulfill some criteria. The criteria are as follows: (1) pictures must be good, clear, interesting, easy to understand and big enough to show detail; (2) pictures must be important and appropriate with the problem discussed; (3) pictures must be right and authentic. It means that the pictures have the same condition with the real things; (4) pictures must be simple. Complicated pictures will make students be confused and fail to find the real meaning of the pictures.
The pictures in flash cards must be big enough so that all students can see them clearly. The size of flash cards can be about 21 x 17 cm. The number of flash cards for vocabulary practices in the classroom can be seven to ten pieces of cards. According to content, there are two types of flash cards. First, flash cards which describe one action, one person, and one object. This type can be used to present new vocabulary, practices, and test some patterns. The second type describes a situation consisting some activities, people, or objects. This type can be used to describe situations such as a picnic, birthday, at the restaurant, in the class, in the kitchen, and other situations. This type can also be used to introduce dialogue, practice sentence patterns, and stimulate students to make composition orally or in written form (Suleiman, 1985:86).


g. Puppets
According to Cox (1999:177), children are natural puppeteers. People can see any young child with a stuffed animal, toy car, or object that can become an extension of the body and voice, and people will see a born puppeteer. Therefore, teacher is better to be able to make and provide puppets in the classroom. Puppet is a perfect way for children to tell story. Cox (1999) states that a simple way to relieve and retell a story is through the use of puppets. By making puppets, students can play a part of or an entire story or create their own story based on a story’s characters.
Making puppets should be kept simple and left up to students. Teacher can ask the students to make puppets. They should use their imagination in creating puppets; their ideas are so much better than those of adults. Teacher should also collect puppet-making materials. Many of the materials needed are everyday objects that would be discarded anyway.

Media Selection
From various functions of instructional media above, it can be concluded that instructional media are really important in teaching and learning process. English teachers need to use instructional media in achieving the teaching objectives. However, the use of instructional media needs to be carefully made and planned. The teachers should follow some considerations in using instructional media in order to avoid difficulties and mistakes in using it in their teaching activities.
Wright (1989) mentions some consideration in selecting media. First, it should be easy to prepare. If it is difficult to prepare, the teacher should not do it. If it takes a lot of time and the teacher can use it many times with different classes, it is worth the effort. Second, it should be easy to organize in the classroom. The teacher has to decide whether the effort of organizing a complicated activity is worthwhile. He has to consider that many activities require organizational time and energy. Third, it should be interesting to the students and the teachers. If the teacher’s activity does not make the students interested, then he will question whether it is worth doing. Fourth, the language and the way the teacher wants the students to use media will be authentic to the activity. The students will get more if the language they use is vital to the situation. Fifth, the activity must give rise to a sufficient amount of language in order to justify its conclusion in the language lesson. If it does not, the teacher should not do it. In choosing and using kinds of media, a teacher should also consider the importance of the media in attaining the objectives of the work, the availability of the media as compared with other media, and the effectiveness of the media as compared to the other media. It means that in using the media, the teacher must be sure that the media used are really important, good, and suitable for the class condition and material given.
After the teacher feels sure that the media have fulfilled the requirements above, the teacher can use the media in class. However, it is also important that the teacher know that he/she cannot use the same media too often, because it makes the students feel bored. So, the teacher has to have other kinds of media in teaching since the students need to have variations in learning so that they feel interested and motivated in learning the lesson. It does not matter for the teacher to find and have other kinds of media. There are still many kinds of media that can be used for teaching.


Producing/Developing the Media
The instructional media should closely relate to the characteristics of the instructional program especially the objective of the program. On the other side, it has been proven that using media will activate the students on their learning process (Brown, 1983:64).
There are two important things to be considered in developing the media, namely the instructional objectives and the students’ characteristics. Dealing with the instructional objectives, the materials which are presented in order to achieve the objective plays an important role. Another consideration that is taken into account is the characteristics of the students. Clark (1990:6-8) in Farida (1997) mentions some characteristics of the students as the young learners. He said that the children are in the early stage of developing their concept. They are in a progress from concrete operational stage of thinking into more complex and abstract thinking. Children also get bored easily. They demand more variation in learning, a child forgets quickly. Monks (1987) in Farida (1997) indicates some characteristics of children. One of the characteristics he stated is that children begin to be able to do the activity in the concrete situation. While according to Scoot (1990:1-4) in Farida (1997) young language learners’ own understanding come through hands, eyes, and ears. They also love playing and learn best when they are enjoying themselves. It means that from those all characteristics above, the adaptation of the available media needs to be done.
There are some typical advantages of producing or developing media done by the teacher for his/her students. Brown (1983:79) stated that there are some benefits which are achieved by the teacher in developing the media. The first benefit is that the teacher can determine and clarify his/her own objectives and ideas about the subject and his/her approach of teaching. The second one is the involvement of self-discipline, meaning that the teacher can determine exactly what he/she is to be present and how and when he/she will use the media resources.

The Function of Instructional Media in Developing Students Ability in Speaking
The instructional media are helpful in developing the ability to speak. The students can perform how to communicate to each other by the aid of media. The students have more courageous to speak. They feel free to express their ideas in a comfortable and enjoyable situation in the classroom where they learn English. The details of the following part discuss about the general consideration in teaching speaking and visual instructional media and the teaching of speaking.

a. General Consideration in Teaching Speaking
According to Rachmajanti (1995:8), in a formal language instruction, the speaking class is one of the domains to practice the target language a lot. At early stages the students are usually reluctant to speak English in class or in groups. They feel shy to do it. As an alternative, the speaking-class teachers might launch other techniques in teaching speaking combined with instructional aids.
Learning to speak a second language is a lengthy process. First, students must learn carefully, repeat models, and imitate the teacher. They may memorize basic sentences to gain confidence in their ability to speak the second language. They may practice sentences and do oral drills (Allen and Valette, 1977:211). Further, they stated that in the classroom the teacher should try to allow for some true speaking activities either guided conversation, at later stages, or free conversation in every unit. Students should be encouraged to talk a great deal in class and to express their own ideas, not simply what the teacher tells them to say. They also stated that as the student begin to speak the foreign language, the teacher plays the role of umpire. He/she can tell the students whether they are pronouncing the new language accurately and whether they are using correct forms. Gradually the teacher guides the students to a point where they can begin to judge whether they are producing the new sounds correctly and whether they are using appropriate sentence patterns. When this point is reached, the teacher’s main concern is no longer primarily to correct, but rather to encourage the students to practice speaking the foreign language as frequently as possible.


b. Visual Instructional Media and the Teaching of Speaking
Wright (1976:14) stated that visual materials could be used for speaking activities. He said that visual materials have five functions which can be used for speaking activities. The first function is to motivate the students to speak. The second one is to create a context within which his speech will have meaning. The third one is to provide the students with information to use in speech, including objects, actions, events, and relationships. The fourth one is to provide the students with non-verbal cues for manipulation work. The last one is to provide non-verbal prompts to dialogue reproduction or to dialogue invention.
Wright also mentioned four activities in teaching speaking. They are repetition, reproduction, manipulation, and composition. In repetition, the total concentration of the students must be on listening to the spoken model and then on the imitation of it. If visual materials are to be used there should be a minimum of distracting information in the picture. In reproduction, the main role of visual materials used to aid reproduction activities is to act as a reminder, by association, of what the students have learnt previously, and as a specific cue to the language now required. The characteristics of visual materials used for reproduction activities will normally be the same as those used for repetition, i.e. simplicity and immediacy of reference to the language involved. In manipulation, the students may make changes in the sentence pattern, for example, using different parts of the paradigm, or they may substitute various vocabulary items. Also, in composition, the visual character of materials used for composition will reflect concern for relevance to the students’ interest. The students will communicate their ideas by using the target language.
Media Development Process
As stated previously that there are five visual instructional media are developed in this study. They are picture cards, simulation board, wheel board, discussion board, and question cards. The development of all these media is discussed in detail in the following parts.

Picture Cards
The main objective of using picture cards is for the students to practice to discuss the description of the objects about home environment. The students will know more about home environment and they are able to discuss them with friends. The materials and tools needed in making the picture cards are a scissors, a pencil, cardboards, ruler, collection of the pictures about home environment, and glue.
In making the picture cards, the first step is preparing 25 pieces of 12 x 10 cm pictures. The pictures are about home environment such as bedroom, bathroom, living room, dining room, and kitchen. The second step is preparing the cardboard. Cut the cardboard the same size as every picture. Then put and glue every picture to the cardboards.

Simulation Board
The main objective of using simulation board is to give some practice of using the expression of sympathy related to the theme “health”. The students can construct dialogues after they have seen the pictures on the simulation board. All students are hoped to be actively involved in taking part giving their opinion about the expression sympathy when they see and hear some bad news about somebody health. While materials and tools needed are: cardboard, collection of pictures related to theme health, glue, a pair of scissors, ruler, color pencils / colorful board markers, a duplex cartoon, and a dice with a small plastic cup.
The direction to make the simulation board is as follows: (1) prepare 10 pieces of the 12 x 10 cm pictures of people wearing different things; (2) prepare the cardboard; (3) covered the cardboard with a white duplex cartoon; (4) draw 20 or more boxes at the edges of cardboard; (5) cut another duplex cartoon due to the size of the pictures; (6) put and glue the pictures to the duplex cartoon; (7) glue the pictures to the 17 or more boxes on the cardboard; (8) write some sentences to the boxes lifted without picture on it; (9) give additional color to the pictures; (10) write “Simulation Board” at the heart of the board; (11) draw arrows which will be the direction of the movement of the players. The picture of the simulation board can be seen in appendix 10.

Wheel Board
The main objective of using a wheel board is to for the students to practice expressing habitual actions. Students are able to develop dialogues about the activities that they do as their habit by using present tense. The materials and tools needed are: cardboard, glue, a pair of scissors, duplex cartoon, collection of pictures showing people do their habitual activities, a ruler, a pencil, pins.
The direction to make the wheel board is as follows: (1) prepare the 12 x 10 cm pictures; (2) prepare the cardboard; (3) draw two big circles on the cardboard; (4) cut those two circles; (5) glue the pictures at the edge of one cardboard circle; (6) prepare the text related to the each picture; (7) glue the text at the edge of another cardboard circle; (8) make two handles for those two circles; (9) prepare another cardboard; (10) draw again two big connected circles; (11) cut again the connected circles; (12) make one small cut at the edge of the two connected circles; (13) pin the connected circles with the separated circles, the separated circles should be at the back of the connected circles. The picture of the wheel board can be seen in appendix 11.

Discussion Board
The main objective of using discussion board is to train the students to express agreement or disagreement about topics discussed. The materials and tools needed are cardboard, glue, a scissors, ruler, a pencil, duplex cartoon, collection of pictures related to light technology especially about farming, pins, and colorful board marker.
The direction to make the discussion board is as follows: (1) prepare the 12 x 10 cm pictures; (2) prepare the duplex cartoon; (3) cut the duplex cartoon with the same size as the pictures. (4) Put and glue the pictures to the duplex cartoons. (5) Prepare the cardboard; (6) draw three different sizes of circles on the cardboard; (7) cut these three circles; (8) cover these three circles with white duplex cartoon; (9) put and glue pictures at the edges of the biggest circle; (10) draw lines which divide the smaller and the smallest circles into sections; (11) write some sentences at each section related to the pictures; (12) pin all the three circles together with the largest one at the back. The picture of the discussion board can be seen in appendix 12.

Question Cards
The main objective of using the question cards is for the students to practice to express preferences. Materials and tools needed are: cardboard, glue, a pair of scissors, white duplex cartoons, pictures collection related to culture, a ruler, pins, and two dices.
The direction to make the wheel board is as follows: (1) prepare the 12 x 10 cm pictures; (2) prepare the duplex cartoon; (3) cut the duplex cartoon with the same size with the pictures; (4) prepare the cardboard; (5) cut the cardboard to make 8 angles; (6) cover the cardboard with white duplex cartoon; (7) prepare another bigger cardboard; (8) cover the cardboard with white duplex cartoon; (9) pin the 8 angles cardboard to the bigger cardboard; (10) make 8 small pockets; (11) glue the pockets to the bigger cardboard; (12) place some pictures into the pockets. The picture of the question cards can be seen in appendix 13.


Media Try Out
These six media should be tried out in order to know whether they have met the instructional objectives or not. Besides, the function of the media to raise the students’ motivation is really working. The following sections describe the try out activities of each media.

a. Picture Cards
The try-out activities in using the picture cards in the speaking class start by dividing the class into small groups containing 6 students. Then the teacher prepares all the picture cards. After that the teacher shows some of the picture cards with the best position so all the students can see them. The teacher asks the students what the pictures of the picture cards about. Next, he tells the students about the pictures and the objective of the lesson. He then distributes two or three picture cards to each group. Every group discusses the picture cards they have in-group. Every group point one or two students as the speakers. Every group then report what the picture cards about to the class. The other groups may ask questions or give additional information to the group who report their picture cards in front of the class. After the whole groups have the chance to report their picture cards, then they may exchange their picture cards with other groups.

b. Simulation Board
The activities in the try out of the simulation board in the class are first by dividing the class into small groups containing 6 students. Then the teacher places the simulation board on the blackboard with the best position that all students can see it clearly. After that, the students are asked what the pictures on the simulation board are about. The next activity is by telling the students about the pictures on the simulation board are about and the objective of the lesson. The teacher gives the students the direction how to use the simulation board and give the students some model by uttering some expression of sympathy. The teacher lets the students to learn the pictures on the simulation board for a minute. Let them choose who will be number one, two, three, and four up to number six. Student number one shakes the plastic cup-containing dice then pour it to the table. The numbers of the dice show who will tell something about the topic at the picture with same number. Students number one again shake the plastic cup then pour the dado to the table. The numbers of dice show who will give the respond to the statement given by the first student and he can ask question as well. All students will have the turn to speak.

c.Wheel Board
The try-out activities of this media are first by dividing the class into small groups containing 6 students. The teacher places the wheel board on the blackboard with the best position that all students can see it clearly. The teacher then asks the students what the pictures and the text on the wheel board are about. He tells the students about the pictures and the text on the wheel board are about and the objective of the lesson. The direction on how to use the wheel board should be clear for the students. The teacher gives the students some model by making a simple dialogue about habitual activities by matching the picture with the text on the wheel board. The teacher lets the students learn the picture and the text again on the wheel board for a minute. Two or three students of each group come to the front of the class. The teacher lets them discuss how to match the pictures with the right text by circling the back two circles. One of them then reports to the class about the activities happen related to the pictures and the text in order. The other groups may ask questions to the group who are reporting the activities related to the pictures and the text.

d.Discussion Board
The activities of this media try-out are as follows. First, the teacher divides the class into small groups containing 6 students; then, he places the discussion board on the blackboard with the best position that all students can see it clearly; then, asking the students what the pictures and the text on the discussion board are about is the next activity. After that he tells the students about the pictures and the text on the discussion board are about and the objective of the lesson. The teacher gives the students the direction how to use the discussion board and also gives them some model by making a simple dialogue about agree and disagree. He lets the students learn the picture and the text again on the discussion board for a minute. Two or three students of each group come to the front of the class. He lets them discuss how to match the pictures with the right text by circling the back two circles by using agree and disagree expression. One of them then reports to the class about the pictures and the text in order. The other groups may ask questions in terms of agree or disagree of the statement from the reporting group.

Question Cards
The media is placed on the blackboard with the best position that all students can see them clearly. The students are asked what the pictures are about. Teacher tells the students what the pictures are about and the objective of the lesson. The teacher gives the students some model by making a simple dialogue about preferences. He also gives the students the direction how to use the question cards. Each group receives the dice, and question cards. The group contains 8 students. The cards are put in piles face down next to the number 1 to 8 on the question cards. Each student in the group is given a number from 1 to 8. Each student throws the dice. One die indicates the question to be asked and the student who must ask the question. The dice is thrown again. The number on the dice shows the student who must answer the question. The students with number 7 and 8 will act as the moderators. They can help the other member by giving the alternative cards to be asked if the student cannot answer the question asked from the first student.


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